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NUR 620 Discussion Board #2
Grand Theory
NOTE: This Discussion Board does not follow all general instructions. See instructions below.
General Instructionsfor all Discussion Boards:
1. Complete required reading before creating your post.
2. Initial post: Each student creates a new thread in the forum as the initial posting of their own that is 250-300 words (use your
Word Count tool) and includes at least TWO scholarly references to support the posting. One of the references is the
appropriate text and the other a scholarly, peer reviewed journal article. If the professor responds and asks you for
clarification or a question, you must respond to the professor.
3. Responding to posts: Each student must respond once during the week. The response must be thoughtful and
reference-based. The response must be 100-125 words. Please put thought into your statements. General posts will not
count; you must provide additional knowledge and add to the discussion to receive credit for the posting. ONE reference is
required for response. It may be one of the original references the poster used.
4. Students who do not post by the due dates will be considered absent and will earn a grade of 0% for
the Discussion post. Discussion board posts that are incomplete or do not meet the requirements
may earn a partial grade or zero.
5. References must be in APA Style (7th edition) and included at the end of both postings – hanging
indentation not required.
6. The reference is not included in the word count. HINT: To avoid losing work and check your word
count, write your post in Word or Google doc, do the word count, and when finished copy & paste
into the Discussion Board.
Rubric for Discussion Board #2
5 Points
Exceeds expectations
Meets Expectations
Does Not Meet
Initial Post
(3.5 pt)
Describes the assigned theory and theorist
with detail and addresses all the required
elements. Text citation. Follow the example.
350-400 words
Describes the theory and the
theorist but missing some detail
or does not address all the
required elements. Text citation.
Lacks depth or
missing significant
(1.5 pt)
Selects a different paradigm (Human Needs,
Interactive Process, or Unitary Process) than
their own original post. Provides a thoughtful
comment on Peer’s work. Then describes
how the theory can be used in their own
practice area. No citation required.
Response lacking in specifics or
Not completed
APA Formatting – .25 deduction for each error type
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NUR 620 Discussion Board #2
Grand Theory
Initial Post: Each student will be assigned a grand theory with its theorist. In the corresponding
chapter (below) read about your theorist. Provide a condensed, descriptive analysis of your
grand theory, using the criteria from McEwan and Wills (Ch. 6). See example
below. 350-400 words. This includes
1. Very Brief Background of Theorist
2. Philosophical underpinnings of the theory
3. Major assumptions, concepts, and relationships (include description of
how the 4 parts of the Nursing Metaparadigm are fully or partially
4. Usefulness (in the past and now)
5. Testability (skip for Discussion Board)
6. Parsimony (skip for Discussion Board)
7. Value in extending nursing science
Peer Response: Read some of the Original Posts of your peers. Choose one you find
interesting – but not your own theorist. Considering your own nursing specialty/practice area,
briefly describe how the theory your peer presented can be used in your patient population.
100-125 words. See example below.
Grand Models and Theories
(will be assigned in class)
Human Needs
Ch 7
Interactive Process
Ch 8
Unitary Process
Ch 9
Nightingale (example)
Erickson, Tomlin, & Swain
Example of an Initial Discussion Post with APA Citation
(In this post you can condense contentfrom the textbook mixed with original writing)
Human Needs
Florence Nightingale: Nursing: What It Is and What It Is Not
1. Background: Nightingale’s Theories were developed before germ theory was widely accepted.
She was from a wealthy English family but chose to care for the sick. As a young nursing leader
she was asked to help British soldiers during wartime. There she observed the terrible conditions
and began developing her disease management theory. She was very religious, basing her care
Elting NUR 620 Spring 2022 2
NUR 620 Discussion Board #2
Grand Theory
on her faith, and so believed everyone deserved civilized care. She was a government health
statistician and assisted with the public health system development. She founded the Nightingale
School for Nurses at St. Thomas’ Hospital.
2. Philosophical Underpinnings of the Theory: She was focused on healing and how leadership and
global action are required to promote health. She believed only women had the right
temperament and virtuous nature to be nurses. She was very strict in the enforcement of her
policies of care and cleanliness. She believed nurses have their own practice but followed
physicians’ prescriptions faithfully. Her educational theory/model is based on anticipating and
meeting the needs of patients and how excellent nursing practice can meet those needs.
3. Major Assumptions, Concepts, and Relationships: Her theory includes the nursing metaparadigm
concepts – humans, environment, health, and nursing even though this wasn’t proposed yet.
Essential for a healthy environment were pure air and water, efficient sewage drainage, minimal
noise, ample light, nutritious food, proper beds and bedding, personal cleanliness, and social
contact. Buildings should be constructed to let in lots of light and fresh air. Nursing care was
needed to meet these needs and delivered where patients lived and in the hospital setting.
Management of care makes a difference in healing the sick and people who were in contact with
4. Usefulness: Nightingale influenced hospitals, community health, nursing practice and education
before other theories were in use.Nightingale’s work can still be applied today when nurses
examine the needs of patients and the environment. Examples in the book talk about chronic and
infectious disease. Right now, it applies to Covid-19 with fresh air, light, minimizing contact with
other people when sick, but also looking at buildings and public transportation and air circulation.
5. Value in Extending Nursing Science: She was a consultant and health statistician whose writings
and theories advanced healthcare and nursing. She was deeply involved in nursing education
and promoting the science of public health, hospital administration, community health, and global
McEwen, M., & Wills, E. M. (2019). Theoretical basis for nursing (5th ed.), Wolters Kluwer Health.
Example of a Peer Response Discussion Post with APA
Hi Andrew,
I understand now that Nightingale had both a disease management theory and a nursing education theory. I never
really thought about how the two were separate, but really about the same thing – taking care of patients(McEwen
& Wills, 2019). Since I graduated in December 2019 I haven’t been able to get a nursing job that I wanted. So I
have been working in vaccine clinics and Covid-19 testing centers. When I do teaching I am totally using
Nightingale’s disease management theory about cleanliness, fresh air and circulation, and preventing transmission
(getting orspreading Covid) at home and out in public. Thanksfor your post.
McEwen, M., & Wills, E. M. (2019). Theoretical basis for nursing (5th ed.), Wolters Kluwer Health.
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