|Glass Ceiling Case Study [WLOs: 1, 2] [CLO: 5]|
Guided Response: Respond to at least two other peer posts regarding items you found to be compelling and enlightening. Remember to include active scholarship in these two replies to substantiate your points, and to properly cite your sources. Please refer to APA: Citing Within Your Paper (Links to an external site.) by the Writing Center for information on citing sources. Your grade will reflect both the quality of your initial post and the depth of your responses. Refer to the Discussion Forum Grading Rubric under the Settings icon in your classroom for guidance on how your discussion will be evaluated.
The glass ceiling is the imaginary barrier inhibiting women and minority groups from climbing into top leadership positions. Three items that explain the barriers which result in the glass ceiling are corporate activities such as staffing, retention, and advancement; behavioral and cultural reasons such as typecasting and preferred leadership style; and organizational and cultural descriptions rooted in feminist philosophy. Additionally, methods accounting for the development of gender-related activities in corporations, which support the glass ceiling idea, fall into three categories which are biological explanations, socialization explanations, and structural and cultural explanations (Weyer, 2007). Women are just as impactful as leaders, dedicated to their work, or determined to attain leadership roles as men are. Still, women are less inclined to promote themselves and engage in negotiation (Northouse, 2022).
The glass ceiling has had many impacts on women. It can create an emotional toll, causing stress, anxiety, and frustration. When women attempt to demonstrate their expertise by acting like a man, they are judged to be less than women. When there seems to be some merit in what would normally have been considered a “female” approach, men adopt it as their own. Behavior previously viewed as weak is now flexible; what was emotional now merges with the logic to create balance. The concept of the greater good, which was once not appropriate in the corporate world, is now visionary (Applebaum et al., 2003). The business sector has been structured to support men who are free of family obligations and have a stereotypical trait of assertiveness. Because of this, women have naturally taken a back seat to men. Companies must build a culture to promote gender equality especially as they seek to promote women to high-level roles that have been dominated by males for decades (Tripathi, 2021). It is shocking today that there is still such a large gap between male and female senior leadership in the United States. More than half of women in technology roles depart their job at the mid-point of their career, which is over two times higher than the rate men leave. Likewise, the staff turnover rate for women in the industry is 41%, compared to 17% for men (Atcheson, 2021).
An example of the glass ceiling we have all seen in our lives lies within the office of the president of the United States. Never has a woman been elected to lead the country. We have made great strides finally having a minority woman, Kamala Harris, elected as the vice president, however, a woman has never held the highest office in the country to date. Unfortunately, the glass ceiling still exists today on a global scale. Mostly men are in executive ranks in organizations and other points of power. In recent times, more attention has been focused on barriers like these, but we still have a long way to go. When looking at the C-level leaders in my organization, it is mostly made up of white males.
Appelbaum, S. H., Audet, L., & Miller, J. C. (2003). Gender and leadership? Leadership and gender? A journey through the landscape of theories. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 24(1), 43-51. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/01437730310457320
Atcheson, S. (2021, December 10). Having a glass ceiling to break through is privilege. here’s why. Forbes. https://www.forbes.com/sites/shereeatcheson/2021/05/13/having-a-glass-ceiling-to-break-through-is-privilege-heres-why/?sh=ad645f720d32
Northouse, P. G. (2022). Leadership theory and practice (9th ed.). SAGE.
Tripathi, M., Saraff, S., Ray, N., & Roy, A. (2021). Glass ceiling and raising aspirations: Exploring managerial roles of women. ASCI Journal of Management, 50(1), 1–14.
Weyer, B. (2007). Twenty years later: explaining the persistence of the glass ceiling for women leaders. Women in Management Review, 22(6), 482-496. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/09649420710778718
Define and describe the glass ceiling.
The imaginary glass ceiling represents the barrier that keep women from reaching the top executive positions. The glass ceiling is a metaphor, they can see the opportunities, but can’t break through to join the top where men are seated. “Individuals with masculine or androgynous classifications are more likely to be identified as preferred leaders than individuals with undifferentiated or feminine scores” (Applebaum et al., 2003, pg.45). The glass ceiling is a sociological trend that is preventing women and people of color (POC) from joining the ranks of higher positions of power within workplaces.
Summarize the reports and/or research results of the glass ceiling’s impact on women.
Even though some progress has been made, women have a greater chance of breaking the glass ceiling when organizations are in a crisis. When females are promoted to the leadership ranks another phenomenon is occurring called “Glass cliff”, According to Cook and Glass (2014, pg. 1081), Glass cliff theory predicts that occupational minorities are more likely to be promoted to leadership positions in organizations that are struggling, in crisis, or at risk to fail” (Cook and Glass, 2014, pg.1081). Women are seen as more emotionally connected when organizational changes are needed to navigate crisis intervention. “Research suggests that those women who do break through the glass ceiling may be more likely to find themselves on a glass cliff—such that their leadership position can be seen as being relatively risky or precarious compared with that of their male counterparts” (Morgenroth, et al., 2020, pg. 798).
The glass ceiling impact women and POC financially, limiting earnings overtime, reduces potential retirement savings, limited growth, and profitability of organizations, “Because increased diversity is needed to combat homogeneity of ideas, as “too much sameness stifles critical thinking and breeds complacence, and overconfidence.” (Chisholm-Burns, 2017, pg.313). The glass cliff is another sociological trend that male leaders don’t face because male leaders protect their image by not taking on organizations in a crisis. If they do, they are given resources to position them for success or a way out with dignity.
Have you faced barriers similar to those described or observed others’ experiences with any of these barriers?
Within the sociological trend of glass ceiling, there is micro-aggression of black women creating another sociological trend-the concrete ceiling “whereby opportunities for career advancement are significantly reduced or nonexistent; the concrete ceiling is more challenging to penetrate as one cannot see through it” (Holder et al., 2015, pg. 165). The concrete ceiling is where I witnessed barriers. I investigated an employee’s complaint regarding discriminatory hiring (promotion) practices. The employee was a black female who was denied promotion on 3 occasions. The investigation found the employee dealt with microinsult, microassualt and microinvalidation.
“Racial microaggressions are described as “subtle insults (verbal, nonverbal, and/or visual) directed toward racial minorities, often automatically or unconsciously. They are hidden in everyday interactions and the undetectable tendency helps to widen the gap of racial realities” (Wong, et al., 2014, para.5).
The employee met the education and experience requirements, she also had direct experience in the department as a backup leader for the team in the absence of the manager.
This type of behavior creates the sociological trend of the concrete ceiling for POC. The concrete meaning, the person can’t see what is going on, or who to connect with for help.
Appelbaum, S. H., Audet, L., & Miller, J. C. (2003). Gender and leadership? Leadership and gender? A journey through the landscape of theories. Leadership & Organization
Development Journal, 24(1), 43-51. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/01437730310457320
Chisholm-Burns, M. A., Spivey, C. A., Hagemann, T., & Josephson, M. A. (2017). Women in leadership and the bewildering glass ceiling. American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy, 74(5), 312-324.
https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Tracy-Hagemann/publication/312972944_Women_in_leadership_and_the_bewildering_glass_ceiling/links/58c048fc92851cbfd30bc1f3/Women-in-leadership-and-the-bewildering-glass-ceiling.pdf (Links to an external site.)
Cook, A., & Glass, C. (2014). Above the glass ceiling: When are women and racial/ethnic minorities promoted to CEO?. Strategic Management Journal, 35(7), 1080-1089.
https://d1wqtxts1xzle7.cloudfront.net/56757595/Research_notes-with-cover-page-v2.pdf?Expires=1646689817&Signature=XKkPP9aa0MW1W9znZV34jP9R8LXdryRz0IoaNjQ-DPoBViAMXtoOcwTPGA4Qb74pnDQHeYPAM27hg9~KGiQlYsGbAPI32QBdS2d5DOWkfACx4Ni7rDBtImpGNKSdy6ctmLxT9cgWegU~uKG2loUU~W2kP7O7235412GPD7KNUa7KK64tSjqbeOlgTcrXcfULAVHSY9k6k8y~9-Zogryli7HdiJnx88~YuD53KKwd7zM7jxccxZytOh1eaUvK~V7F-1unjKz9318Qsjv~bNSGTwcTzDV832Zkv~YIt6c27cjF8ruKZcB3d0urWGmEploaj~egSq3A9tv2U6o9X8nzWg__&Key-Pair-Id=APKAJLOHF5GGSLRBV4ZA (Links to an external site.)
Holder, M.B., Jackson, Margo A., and Ponterotto, Joseph G. (2015) Racial microaggression experiences and coping strategies of black women in corporate leadership. American Psychological Association
Morgenroth, T., Kirby, T. A., Ryan, M. K., & Sudkämper, A. (2020). The who, when, and why of the glass cliff phenomenon: A meta-analysis of appointments to precarious leadership positions. Psychological Bulletin, 146(9), 797–829. https://doi.org/10.1037/bul0000234 (Links to an external site.)
Wong, G., Derthick, A. O., David, E. J. R., Saw, A., & Okazaki, S. (2014). The what, the why, and the how: A review of racial microaggressions research in psychology. Race and social problems, 6(2), 181-200.
|Navigating the Labyrinth Debate [WLOs: 1, 2] [CLO: 5]|
Guided Response: Respond to at least two other peer posts regarding items you found to be compelling and enlightening. Remember to include active scholarship in these two replies to substantiate your points and to properly cite your sources. Please refer to APA: Citing Within Your Paper (Links to an external site.) by the Writing Center for information on citing sources. Your grade will reflect both the quality of your initial post and the depth of your responses. Refer to the Discussion Forum Grading Rubric under the Settings icon in your classroom for guidance on how your discussion will be evaluated.
Navigating the Labyrinth Debate
The glass ceiling has undoubtedly become a leadership labyrinth, which causes a complicated maze for the women to get promoted in the organization. This is evident by the poor diversity report in technical positions of Google Company and Facebook Company. Preoccupied thoughts regarding women’s abilities held by men certainly create barriers to women’s progress in the organizational ladder. To break this glass thinking approach by management, specific strategies need to be practiced. One way is to go beyond the systematic efforts to promote diversity and inclusion. The variety and inclusion program may become a norm to fulfill a specific image criterion. Still, in practice, the organization should take extra steps to promote women to the top leadership position. There is a need to bridge the gap between walking and talking (Sud & Amarnesh, 2019). It is suggested that the senior management practice the strategy of walking the talking regarding women’s empowerment in the organization.
Another technique that is effective to break this grass ceiling approach is using hidden bias training to the senior employees in the organization to promote the recruiting of women. Listening and learning practices need to be established by the organization. Women and men share their thoughts and concerns regarding women’s empowerment and more representation in leadership positions. Another crucial strategy is to encourage women leaders to support women in the workplace. The work culture also needs to be changed as it is found that cultural and social barriers often do not promote women’s empowerment and more opportunities to them. Men generally do not accept women bosses at the workplace easily, and when women show masculine qualities, they are disparaged for acting like a man at the workplace. Such behavioral tendencies of men should be addressed. Therefore, employees’ cultural and social beliefs must be addressed by providing behavioral training and imparting the benefits of keeping women in a leadership position.
Conflicting expectations of the men from women’s leadership make women’s tasks more complex to lead at the workplace. Due to that, it is suggested that women must show warmth in a relationship (Martin, 2007) with others and must build social networks to become successful leaders in the workplace. To promote women’s leadership, education is another essential thing as it is found that women do not obtain more technical degrees than men. Therefore, an organization that genuinely wants to break the glass ceiling may provide additional specialized training to women to promote them in leadership positions. These steps can ensure that the glass ceiling effect is amply broken.
Martin, S., (2007). The labyrinth to leadership. Retrieved from https://www.apa.org/monitor/julaug07/labyrinth.
Northouse, P. G. (2022). Leadership theory and practice (9th ed.). SAGE.
Sud, S., Amarnesh A., (2019) breaking the glass ceiling in leadership roles. Retrieved from https://www.shrm.org/shrm-india/pages/breaking-glass-ceiling-in-leadership-roles.aspx.
The glass ceiling has certainly transformed into a leadership maze and creates a difficult maze for women as they advance through the organization. This phenomenon occurs almost everywhere, despite the increase in qualifications and the ability to work for women. This has been shown in research and statistics and is at least in part the result of continued discrimination against women at work. Women are associated with general characteristics that express concern for compassionate behavior towards others. They include special sympathy, responsiveness, kindness, kindness, and empathy, as well as sensitivity, tenderness, and interpersonal gentleness. In contrast, males are associated with agent traits that express confidence and control. These include particular aggressiveness, ambition, domination, self-confidence, and strength, as well as self-confidence and individualism.
Greater female decision-making power could lead to the strategic realignment that differs from plans for all-male teams. Personnel policy could be the first area in which changes are sought to promote work-life balance. It is not surprising that several studies have found that women entrepreneurs prefer to maintain a balance between work and family, which in some cases delays their growth as business leaders. Similarly, the data shows that the gender composition of an organization influences its objectives, with the social component representing a greater proportion of its main challenges. These sensitivities, which differ from those of men, also extend to other aspects of the company, such as respect for the environment and business ethics.
Today’s successful women, and the companies that encourage their growth, are finding a certain formula to their advantage. By creating an environment where women are prepared for management roles, made integral to business teams, and evaluated in a way that excludes gender as a factor in job performance, employers are helping to break down some walls in the labyrinth. As women find their way through one by one, the path out for those that follow is bound to become easier to navigate.
Northouse, P. (2020). Leadership theory and practice (9th ed.).