Policy Description

The policy I selected was stop and frisk and the purpose of stop and frisk is to seize weapons not evidence of crime. The first scholarly peer review source I will be using is (Cooley, E.,Hester, et al., 2020). This article discusses violent encounters black people have with police compared to when they are in a group.  While black people are seen as a threat there is experimental research that shows how a black person being stopped by a police officer in a group compared to alone is a less risk of racial disparities and use of force. The second scholarly peer review source (Evans, al.,2017) The New York City stop, and frisk program has been around for over 40 years. There is research that has examined attitudes toward police, but empirical research has not examined citizen discernment towards stop and frisk; they use data from pedestrians to get opinions on stop and frisk   (Evans, D. N., & Williams, C.-L. 2017). The results demonstrate demographic and characteristic attitudes toward minorities, young citizens, lower income, etc which influence attitudes toward stop and frisk (Evans, D. N., & Williams, C.-L. 2017).  The third scholarly peer review source (Avdija, A. S. 2014) The purpose of the research rank order research test is to make sure of racialized policing and analyze based on data for NYPD stop and frisk practices (Avdija, A. S. 2014). The Fourth scholarly peer review source (Halkitis, P.N. et al., 2021). This journal explains how racial ethic groups and disparities are documented and less is still known about other dimensions of inequality in policing (Halkitis, P.N. et al., 2021). Sexual Minority groups may have to deal with disproportionate police contact. Data from P18 Cohort study. The study measure determinants of  inequity STI/HIV among young sexual minority men this was measure across- time trends racial ethnic disparities correlates self reported stop and frisk experience over cohort follow up. Over the study period 43% reported stop and frisk higher level report black 47% and hispanic/ Latino 45% over white participants (Halkitis, P.N. et al., 2021). The fifth scholarly review source (Wooditch,A., & Weisburd, D.2016). This source focuses on effects on place- based criminal justice interventions which extend both space and time.  The study relies on x- y coordinates to locate stop-question-frisk the crime events in New York City to assess the deterrent effect of crime across space at a daily level (Wooditch,A., & Weisburd, D. (2016). The sixth scholarly review source (Slobogin, C. 2019). Statistics are playing a crucial role in criminal cases heavy influence on policy governing police stop and frisk and help courts evaluate admissibility of an expert testimony courts have not been up to task analyzing the value of statistical analysis(Slobogin, C. 2019). The seventh scholarly review source (Fradella, H. F., & White, M. D.2017). Although stop and frisk has been around since the 21st century policing.  There is a long history behind the tactic rooted in reasonable suspicion of criminal activity; it is an aggressive crime control strategy. With recent experiences, jurisdiction demonstrates a strong disconnect between constitutionally sanctioned principles and police practice, arguably Stop and Frisk next iteration persistent undercurrent racial injustice in policing (Fradella, H. F., & White, M. D. 2017). The eight scholarly review sources the predictive policing program analyzing existing crime data and an attempt to make predictions. As to what crimes are likely to be committed, list of potential victims and offenders the proactive form of law enforcement. Free from bias due to data driven nature, however the justice policy predictive policing discriminatory as traditional police practices (Browning, M., & Arrigo, B.2021). The ninth scholarly review source (Greenawalt, K. 2014). A troubling aspect of stop and frisk in New York and other cities evidence police tactic employed predominantly against young men in racial minorities targeting racially defined groups based on crime suspect data discusses inappropriate use of racial criteria cast as “racial discrimination”(Greenawalt, K. 2014).
























Avdija, A. S. (2014). Police Stop-and-Frisk Practices: An Examination of Factors That Affect Officers’ Decisions to Initiate a Stop-and-Frisk Police Procedure. International Journal of Police Science & Management, 16(1), 26–35.


Browning, M., & Arrigo, B. (2021). Stop and risk: Policing, data, and the digital age of discrimination. American Journal of Criminal Justice : AJCJ, 46(2), 298-316. doi:


Cooley, E., Hester, N., Cipolli, W., Rivera, L. I., Abrams, K., Pagan, J., Sommers, S. R., & Payne, K. (2020). Racial Biases in Officers’ Decisions to Frisk Are Amplified for Black People Stopped Among Groups Leading to Similar Biases in Searches, Arrests, and Use of Force. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 11(6), 761–769.


Evans, D. N., & Williams, C.-L. (2017). Stop, Question, and Frisk in New York City: A Study of Public Opinions. Criminal Justice Policy Review, 28(7), 687–709.


Fradella, H. F., & White, M. D. (2017). Reforming stop-and-frisk. Criminology, Criminal Justice, Law & Society, 18(3), 45-64. Retrieved from


Greenawalt, K. (2014). Probabilities, Perceptions, Consequences and “Discrimination”: One Puzzle about Controversial “Stop and Frisk.” Ohio State Journal of Criminal Law, 12(1), 181–193.


Khan, M. R., Kapadia, F., Geller, A., Mazumdar, M., Scheidell, J. D., Krause, K. D., Martino, R. J., Cleland, C. M., Dyer, T. V., Ompad, D. C., & Halkitis, P. N. (2021). Racial and ethnic disparities in “stop-and-frisk” experience among young sexual minority men in New York City. PloS One, 16(8), e0256201.


Slobogin, C. (2019). The use of statistics in criminal cases: An introduction. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 37(2), 127–132.


Wooditch, A., & Weisburd, D. (2016). Using Space-Time Analysis to Evaluate Criminal Justice Programs: An Application to Stop-Question-Frisk Practices. Journal Of Quantitative

Criminology, 32 (2), 191-213.